Vicom Resources - White Papers & Research Papers

View, Download or Request Presentations, Manuals, Application Notes, White Papers and Primers

Contact Us

1. Oscilloscopes

2. Signal Sources & Analysers

3. Electrical Measurements

4. Positioning, Navigation & Timing

5. Optical Fibre Construction & Test

6. Transport, Ethernet & Datacom Test

7. Equipment Calibration


 1. Oscilloscopes


Achieve Higher Vertical Resolution for More Precise Measurements

48W-61648 White Paper

This white paper describes an approach in which new oscilloscope ADC technology, combined with digital signal processing and a low-noise front end, can provide even higher resolution than found in conventional high bit-rate ADC implementations. It discusses the combination of 12-bit analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), HD displays, low noise front-ends and hardware filtering to achieve high resolution measurements.

Tektronix, January 2020

Tektronix White Paper 48W-61648
Applicable Products: 4 Series MSO, 5 Series MSO6 Series MSO, 5 Series Low Profile MSO, 6 Series Low Profile Digitizer

External Attenuators vs Internal Attenuators in Ultra-High Performance Oscilloscopes

55W-55W-60767-0 White Paper

Throughout any design process, engineers are faced with design trade-offs. Tektronix has been designing scopes with internal attenuators for many decades. However, as the bandwidth of the scope increases, more consideration has to be given to the effects of the attenuator network on signal fidelity.

Tektronix, May 2016

White Paper 55W-55W-60767-0
Applicable Products: DPO70000SX

Techniques For Extending Real-Time Oscilloscope Bandwidth

55W-29371-3_v White Paper

This document compares the techniques used to extend the bandwidth performance of real-time scopes, and introduces the latest innovation in this pursuit – Asynchronous Time Interleaving.

Tektronix, March 2015

WP 55W-29371-3
Applicable Products: DPO70000SX


 2. Signal Sources & Analysers

Performance, size, reliability, affordability. Choose four

70W_61151_0 White Paper

The TTR500A Series VNA includes an impressive array of technological and patented advances that allow it to bend many of the traditional trade-offs between RF performance, size, reliability, and cost.

Tektronix, April 2017

White Paper 70W_61151_0
Applicable Products: TTR500 Series

Overcoming RF Signal Generation Challenges with New DAC Technologies

37W_61081_0 White Paper

In this document, some important features enabling the AWG5200 series for direct RF complex signal generation are presented followed by a discussion on two architectural techniques that can be implemented externally to further expand the frequency coverage of the instrument with a focus on reducing cost and complexity for multi-channel applications.

Tektronix, February 2017

White Paper 37W_61081_0
Applicable Products: AWG5200 Series

Overcoming RF Signal Generation Challenges in Quantum Computing with New DAC Technologies

37W_60983_0 White Paper

In this document, some important features enabling the AWG5200 series for direct RF complex signal generation are presented followed by a discussion on two architectural techniques that can be implemented externally to further expand the frequency coverage of the instrument with a focus on reducing cost and complexity for multi-channel applications.

Tektronix, January 2017

White Paper 37W_60983_0
Applicable Products: AWG5200 Series

32 Gbits QPSK Transmission at 385 GHz

85W_60166_0_v White Paper

Tektronix reports on the first QPSK data link at 385 GHz, using a photonics based THz emission and a double heterodyne THz detection. The QPSK signalling is investigated up to 16 GBaud (32 Gbit/s) on short range distance, with 20 µW received power levels.

Tektronix, June 2015

WP mages/content_images/85W_60166_0
Applicable Products: AWG70000, OM5110, MSO/DPO70000DX


 3. Electrical Measurements

Pulse Testing of Laser Diodes and Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers

1KW-61693 White Paper

Thermal management is critical when testing vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) at the semiconductor wafer, bar, and chip-on-carrier production stages. As a result, pulsed testing is commonly used to minimize power dissipation. However, several sources of error remain when pulse testing VCSELs or laser diodes, including problems with coupling high current pulses to the DUT, optical detector coupling, and both slow response and inaccuracy in the detector itself. This paper explores solutions to each of these problems that can deliver shorter test times, more accurate results, and lower reject rates.

Tektronix (Keithley), April 2020

White Paper 1KW-61693
Applicable Products: 2601B-PULSE

New Current Pulser / SMU Instrument Eliminates Time Consuming Manual Tuning When Outputting Pulses As Low As 10 µs

1KW-61689 White Paper

The introduction of higher test currents into a VCSEL on wafer, or even a packaged part increases device self-heating, which can degrade the performance characteristics of the device, or worse, damage it. It also increases the potential for burning probe tips during on-wafer testing. This can be problematic, seriously compromising yield. To minimize self-heating, many test specifications require current pulses with pulse widths as short as 10 µs. This requirement in turn drives the need for pulse rise and fall times on the order of 2 µs or less in order to make a fully settled measurement on such a short pulse. While conventional instruments like source measure units (SMUs) are commonly used to test VCSELs, they may not be able to achieve the short current pulse widths needed and will even require manual tuning to ensure the pulse output is usable.

Tektronix (Keithley), April 2020

White Paper 1KW-61689
Applicable Products: 2601B-PULSE

Getting back to the basics of Electrical Measurements

1KW-30009-0_v White Paper

Accurate measurements are central to virtually every scientific and engineering discipline, but all too often measurement science gets little attention in the undergraduate curriculum. Even those who received a thorough grounding in measurement fundamentals as undergraduates can be forgiven if they’ve forgotten some of the details. This white paper is intended to refresh those fading memories or to bring those who want to learn more about making good quality measurements up to speed.

Tektronix (Keithley), December 2013

WP 1KW-30009-0
Applicable Products: DMM


 4. Positioning, Navigation & Timing


An Engineer’s Guide to CRPA Testing

(No document ref) White Paper

CRPAs (Controlled Reception Pattern Antennas) are becoming increasingly common, particularly in the Defense sector. CRPAs are an extremely effective anti-jam/spoof solution, because they adapt dynamically in response to jamming or spoofing signals. It is important to know the direction from which the interference is coming, so that you do not receive that RF power into your GPS receiver. This is done by forming nulls in the direction of the interference, or by using beam forming techniques to isolate and track only the true satellite signals, ignoring the others.

This white paper discusses the applications and use cases for CRPAs, how they work and the methods for testing them. It also explores the various types of testing solutions available in the marketplace today, and helps you choose the right solution for your specific application.

Orolia, August 2020

White Paper - An Engineers Guide to CRPA Testing
Applicable Products:  GSG Simulators


Creating a GNSS Test Plan - A Start to Finish Guide

(No document ref) White Paper

The low cost and high performance of GNSS receiver chipsets makes it easier than ever to include a GNSS receiver in products that never had them before. With the availability of multiple GNSS constellations that transmit signals on multiple frequencies, and various available technologies to improve the accuracy of GNSS, evaluating and selecting a receiver can be a significant undertaking.

How a GNSS receiver is integrated can have a major impact on product and system performance. To ensure success, a best practice is to perform testing using a GNSS simulator, which allows for repeatable testing of devices with GNSS receivers in simulated environments.

This white paper defines the key performance tests for the receiver, outlines test development considerations, and includes an Example Test Plan.

Orolia, July 2020

White Paper: Creating a GNSS Test Plan - A Start to Finish Guide
Applicable Products:  GSG Simulators

Satellite Synchronization is Critical to 5G Mobile Cellular Network Operation

30190924 900 1019 White Paper

A technical analysis of new timing and synchronization standards applying to new technologies, including 5G, which have phase and time requirements in addition to frequency. Frequency sync alone will no longer meet the more stringent demands.

VIAVI Solutions, September 2019

White Paper Making Time Sensitive Networs Resiient
Applicable Products:  MTS-5800/TEM

Making Time Sensitive Networks Resilient

(No document ref) White Paper

Today's time sensitive networks rely on available and accurate positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) signals to provide leaders with the information required to make timely and effective decisions. This white paper discusses alternative signals that are suitable for time sensitive networks.

Orolia, May 2017

White Paper Making Time Sensitive Networs Resiient
Applicable Products:  SecureSync

The Advent of Tightly Synchronized Clocks in Distributed Systems

(No document ref) White Paper

The last decade has brought a paradigm shift in computing systems from single processor devices - whose performance plateaued - to distributed computing systems. In distributed systems, nodes execute concurrently with limited information about what the other nodes are executing at the moment. Thus, a fundamental problem in distributed systems is to coordinate the execution of these independent nodes effectively to achieve performance while preserving correctness.

Orolia, May 2017

White Paper_Tightly_Synchronized_Clocks_in_Distributed_Systems
Applicable Products: SecureSync

Wanted: Reliable PNT for Intelligent Transportation Systems

WP14-101 White Paper

“Connected car” technology is actually the convergence of a broad spectrum of technical advancements in the fields of computing, wireless communications, deterministic networking and position, navigation and timing (PNT) technology. Each of these technologies have already undergone revolutionary advances in their own fields and continue to do so.

Spectracom, November 2016

White Paper WP14-101
Applicable Products: Mobile PNT

The Traceability of Time Synchronization: Inside vs Outside the Network

WP13-101_A White Paper

This document briefly discusses the differences between a time source from within the network compared to outside the network with considerations for traceability for a network deployment of network time protocol (NTP).

Spectracom, Feb 2016

White Paper WP13-101_A
Applicable Products:  SecureSync

Zone Based Indoor Location Using GNSS Simulators

ISGNSS2015 White Paper

This paper describes the technologies and methods for creating such a system including time synchronization at the nanosecond, microsecond, and millisecond levels, how each synchronization level affects the overall system and methods for achieving each, power level considerations including power level requirements between zones and how they affect transitions from one zone to another, data transfer and example system configurations.

Spectracom, Nov 2015

Technical Paper ISGNSS-2015
Applicable Products: SecureSyncGSG-5

What Time is it? It’s a Matter of Trust

WP01-101_C White Paper

Those in the business of measuring time are familiar with the saying, “If you have one clock, you know what time it is. If you have two, well…”. Time synchronization is the ability for all clocks to have the same time. But what time is it? If your time synchronization
deployment uses time from the internet, your organization may be at risk. Official time provided by a GPS-based network appliance is
a time source that you can trust.

Spectracom, September 2014

White Paper WP01-101_C
Applicable Products: SecureSync

A Master Clock Approach to Distributing Precision Time and Frequency

WP11-101_A White Paper

This white paper describes the issue of providing precise time and frequency signals of the type and quantity needed by the application using commercial-off-the-shelf devices from Spectracom.

Spectracom, January 2014

White Paper WP11-101_A
Applicable Products: SecureSync

GNSS Enhances Timing Applications

WP10-101 White Paper

This white paper describes the trend to multi-GNSS using the example of the Russian GLONASS system as a complement to GPS. Dual mode GNSS receivers are now state-of-the art in timing systems and are commonly available in products offered by Spectracom.

Spectracom, November 2013

White Paper WP10-101
Applicable Products:  

 What is a GPS Simulator?

WP08-101 White Paper

As GPS receivers are built into more mission-critical devices for difficult application environments, and designed with the emerging
capabilities of a multitude of GNSS constellations and augmentation systems, developers and manufacturers need better ways to
guarantee performance. That’s where a GPS simulator comes in.

Spectracom, May 2012

White Paper WP08-101
Applicable Products: GSG-51GSG-5GSG-6


 5. Optical Fibre Construction & Test


Winning with MPO Testing: How to Test MPO with Confidence and Efficiency

30187687 902 White Paper

The goal of this White Paper is to help those with a vested interest in fibre technology to better understanding how the growth of multi-fibre connectivity affects how fiber networks are built and efficiently tested, and to arm them with a solid understanding of MPO basics so they’re empowered to choose the right tools for the job. In order to get the lie of the land, MPO key concepts will be summarised.

VIAVI Solutions, 2019

Document icon
Applicable Products:  Sidewinder Microscope

Choosing the Right OpticalTime Domain Reflectometer(OTDR)

30175828 902 0319 White Paper

This white paper provides key information about OTDRs and guidance to newcomers in the telecommunication fibre optic market for selecting an OTDR appropriate to their testing needs.

VIAVI Solutions, 2019

Choosing the Right OTDR White Paper
Applicable Products:  OTDRs

Monitoring Raman Amplified Optical Links While In Services

30187462 901 White Paper

Erbium-Doped Fibre Amplifier (EDFA) and Raman amplifiers are the two main solutions for optical signal amplification in long distance, optical communication systems. While EDFAs are still the most deployed amplifiers, Raman-based solutions are gaining momentum in the metro / core transmission market. Some of the main benefits include the wider wavelength range than EDFA (limited to 1525-1565 nm and 1570 - 1610 nm) and the use of the transmission fibre as the amplification medium. This paper explains how Raman amplified fibre can be monitored with the VIAVI Solutions Optical Network Monitoring System (ONMSi).

VIAVI Solutions, November 2018

Monitoring Raman Amplified Optical Links White Paper
Applicable Products:  

Achieving IEC Standard Compliance for Fibre Optic Connector Quality through Automation of the Systematic Proactive End Face Inspection Process

30168245 900 1010 White Paper

It is widely known in the fibre optic industry that scratches, defects, and dirt on fibre optic connector end faces negatively impact network performance. As bandwidth requirements continue to grow and fibre penetrates further into the network, dirty and damaged optical connectors increasingly impact the network. If dirty and damaged end faces are not dealt with systematically, these defects can degrade network performance and eventually take down an entire link.

VIAVI Solutions, 2016

IEC Complance White Paper
Applicable Products:  Fibre Inspection Probes


Macrobend Detection Using an OTDR

30149099 900 White Paper

On a transmission network, one cause of insertion loss on a fibre link is macro bending. This is commonly caused by tight installation or handling. As Fibre-to-the-Home (FTTH) networks lead to a significant increase of fiber installation in the last mile, the space constraints become increasingly stringent. This is driving the need for distributions hubs and network cabinets to be as small as possible while also increasing fibre density.

VIAVI Solutions, 2015

Detecting Macrobends White Paper
Applicable Products:  OTDRs


 6. Transport, Ethernet & Datacom Test


Fundamentals of Ethernet

30137557 902 White Paper

With the requirement for Ethernet growing at an ever faster rate in enterprise applications it is critical that technicians and engineers are familiar with basic testing procedures, tooling and principles when undertaking network testing. This White Paper provides a brief history and an explanation of ethernet technology before covering teh basics of ethernet networks testing

VIAVI Solutions, 2016

Document icon
Applicable Products:  Ethernet Test Sets


 6. Equipment Calibration

White Paper: Test Equipment Calibration

whpvatecal01 White Paper

Calibration involves comparing / adjusting an instrument against known references and the supply of documentation as verification of this. This paper outlines factors affecting the quality of calibration and the choice of calibration interval.

Vicom Australia, undated

White Paper - Test Equipment Calibration
Applicable Products: